Xi talks with hearing-impaired students at a school in Shanghai in 2007. Feudal China was gradually reduced after 1840 to a semi-colonial and semi-feudal country. PHOTO: Margaret Lewis, an expert in China’s legal system at National Taiwan University, said Xi had already scored a “major political victory” with the addition of his “Thought” to the party constitution, and “does not need to change the rules on term limits to remain extremely powerful.”. PHOTO: As part of an agricultural delegation, he was making his first trip to the United States. As Shanghai's party secretary in 2007, Xi welcomes former US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger and Pepsi President and CEO Indra Krishanamurthy Nooyi. Feudal China was gradually reduced after 1840 to a semi-colonial and semi-feudal country. PHOTO: 1:38 AM EST, Thu December 28, 2017. The NSC is one of several new laws which “give the party and the government sweeping powers,” he said. Chip Somodevilla/Getty Images. ), Topic: Constitutional law, Executive powers, Legislative bodies, About | To complete your CNN profile and ensure you are able to receive important account information, please verify your email address. Chinese President Xi Jinping had a good 2017, but 2018 may be looking even better. In previous years, the day passed with little fanfare, but not in 2014. Xi shakes hands with Russian President Vladimir Putin before a meeting in Moscow in July 2017. A Warner Media Company. Xinhua News Agency/Getty Images. While much of these changes involve legalizing activities which already go on unofficially, Nee said this may be motivated by a desire to gain international legitimacy for and cooperation with China’s anti-corruption drive. The following is the full text of the Constitution of the Communist Party of China (CPC) revised and adopted at the 18th CPC National Congress on Nov. 14, 2012. Xi and US Vice President Joe Biden inspect an honor-guard contingent during a welcoming ceremony in Beijing in 2011. Xi poses for a photo as he sits in his office in 1983. Chinese President Xi Jinping speaks in Beijing's Great Hall of the People on Wednesday, October 25, as the new lineup was unveiled for the Chinese Communist Party's all-powerful Politburo Standing Committee. (qianfan zhang, the constitution of china 55–57 (2012).) Prior to the 2018 amendment, the 1982 Constitution was amended four times—in 1988, 1993, 1999, and 2004. At the time, he was secretary of the Zhengding County Committee. (Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo Xianfa Xiuzheng An [PRC Constitutional Amendment] (adopted by the NPC on Mar. CNN Sans ™ & © 2016 Cable News Network. China - China - Constitutional framework: The fourth constitution of the People’s Republic of China was adopted in 1982. The 1988 amendment contained two articles; the 1993 amendment, nine articles; the 1999 amendment, six articles; and the 2004 amendment, 14 articles. Xi meets with former US President Bill Clinton in Beijing in 2013. Photo Illustration/Getty images. In a recent report analyzing the proposed NSC framework, Amnesty warned it would “legalize a form of arbitrary detention and create a new extra-judicial system with far-reaching powers that has significant potential to infringe human rights.”. Please click the button below to agree to our Terms and Conditions and acknowledge our Privacy Policy. Jobs | PHOTO: Xi and Peng pose with the Obamas before a state dinner in Washington in 2015. That system would apply not only to party members, but also to people working in state-owned companies, scientific research, education, healthcare and other public bodies, in what Nee described as a “very worrying” development. A chronology of key events in the history of China. JIM WATSON/AFP/Getty Images. The people of all of China’s nationalities have jointly created a culture of grandeur and have a glorious revolutionary tradition. Xi, left, meets with citizens of Fuzhou, China, in 1993. Xi listens to villagers in north China's Zhengding County in 1983. He was among the millions of urban youths who were "sent down," forced to leave cities to work as laborers in the countryside. That continued this week, with command of paramilitary police forces placed under the party’s Central Committee and the Central Military Commission, both of which are headed by Xi. In October, the CCP enshrined “Xi Jinping Thought” as a guiding principle, elevating him to a level no Chinese leader has held since Mao Zedong. From 1979 to 1982, Xi was the personal secretary for Defense Minister Geng Biao. Xi brings blankets to a villager after ice storms in 2008. The stadium was hosting games during the 2008 Summer Olympics. From 1969 to 1975, Xi worked as an agricultural laborer in Liangjiahe, China. Official blog from the Law Library of Congress, (May 18, 2018) On March 11, 2018, the National People’s Congress (NPC) of the People’s Republic of China (PRC or China) adopted an amendment to the PRC Constitution. 11, 2018) (2018 Amendment), NPC website; Changhao Wei, Translation: 2018 Amendment to the P.R.C. Accessibility | Xi kicks a soccer ball in 2008 as he inspects a field in Qinhuangdao, China. “Xi has shown firm faith and will, clear commitment to the people, extraordinary political wisdom and tactics and a strong sense of responsibility, in leading the CPC and China in the great struggle with many new contemporary features,” the Politburo said in a statement following the “meeting of self reflection.”, William Nee, a China researcher for Amnesty International, said self criticism meetings “are a very old tool … to get people to admit their faults publicly, talk about the problems in their work styles and to profess loyalty to the party center and in this case explicitly to Xi Jinping.”, Lewis said the session was typical of how under Xi “there is little tolerance … for the slightest wobbling off the party line.”. The Chinese people waged wave upon wave of heroic struggles for national independence and liberation and for democracy and freedom. Great and earth-shaking historical changes have taken place in China … This week, the Politburo, the party’s top body, underwent a Mao-era style self criticism session in which they vowed to follow Xi’s lead, according to state news agency Xinhua. PHOTO: The country's rubber-stamp legislature approved the constitutional change with virtually no opposition. PHOTO: It vests all national legislative power in the hands of the National People’s Congress and its Standing Committee. If an account exists, we've sent an email with a link to reset your password. From 1996-2002, Xi held various posts in China's Fujian Province, including governor. PHOTO: Eva Cheng. The ruling Communist Party (CCP) will discuss changing the country’s constitution for the first time since 2004 next month, with analysts predicting Xi will further cement his grip on power. Xi Zhongxun was a communist revolutionary who held several positions in the National People's Congress. China block out CNN feed during reporting of Xi Jinping protests The government has said lifting the term limits is about protecting the authority of the party with Mr Xi at its centre. The first version of the Chinese constitution presented here was that of December 4, 1982. The Temporary Provisions came into force on May 10, 1948, ten days before the inauguration of the first President of the Republic of China. But the historic mission Muscatine Journal/ZUMAPRESS/Newscom. Great and earth-shaking historical changes have taken place in China … This comes on the back of a move by Xi this week to shore up his command of the country’s armed forces by moving control of paramilitary police from the government to the CCP. China's President Xi Jinping has consolidated power to levels not seen in decades. PHOTO: The new lineup did not include an heir apparent to Xi, who analysts predict will dominate the country's politics for decades to come. 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